By J.W.L. Beament
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Additional info for Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 4
The primary breakdown products are the nucleosides adenosine and guanosine, and these may be deaminated directly under the influence of the corresponding enzymes, adenosine deaminase and guanosine deaminase. In the presence of purine nucleosidases, the ribose sugar is then split off to liberate the purine bases. T H E EXCRETION OF N I T R O G E N I N INSECTS 37 Enzymes responsible for such actions have been demonstrated in the cockroach (Cochran and Bruno, 1963; Cordero and Ludwig, 1963), and adenosine deaminase activity has been established in extracts of the larval fat body of blowflies (Desai and Kilby, 1958a) and in homogenates of Drosophila (Wagner and Mitchell, 1948).
B. T H E I O N I C B A S I S O F E L E C T R I C A L L Y E X C I T A B L E RESPONSES The electrically excitable responses of insect muscle fibres are similar in type to the subthreshold “local responses” (Hodgkin, 1938) of nerve fibres. The well established theory of the ionic basis of the propagated action potential in squid giant axons (Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952) provides a convincing explanation of the mechanism of these responses. In a normal nerve action potential, depolarization causes an increase in the sodium conductance of the membrane which itself produces further depolarization, so that the membrane potential moves rapidly towards the sodium equilibrium potential.
Potassium ions and insect nerve muscle. J. exp. Biol. 30,121-135. Hoyle, G . (1955a). The anatomy and innervation of locust skeletal muscle. Proc. R. B 143,281-292. Hoyle, G. (1955b). Neuromuscular mechanisms of a locust skeletal muscle. Proc. R. B 143,343-367. Hoyle, G. (195%). The effects of some common cations on neuromuscular transmission in insects. J. Physiol. 127, 90-103. Hoyle, G. (1957). Nervous control of insect muscles. In “Recent Advances in Invertebrate PhysiQlogy ” (B. T. ), pp. 73-98.
Advances in Insect Physiology, Vol. 4 by J.W.L. Beament