By Denis Howe
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Additional resources for Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout (Aerospace Series (PEP))
1 . 2) cos a U , = V cos a cos p V, = V s i n /3 W, = V s i n a c o s p It is sometimes useful to use the inverse of the matrix D: + cos JICOS i? % @ cos 0cos $ Similar transformations may be applied to other parameters, for example the angular rates p, q, and r about the body axes in terms of the rates of change 4, 8,and 4 defined in terms of the earth axes. 2 Inertial characteristics The inenial characteristics are the mass, the centre of gravity and the moments and products of inertia. 1 Mass The conceptual phase of a design yields a predicted total mass together with a breakdown into individual contributions.
Loading and structural layout The second group of loads arise because of the imperfectness of the environment in which the vehicle operates. These may be due to such things as atmospheric turbulence or runway unevenness. Essentially this class of loading would not occur in an ideal situation but in practice has to be tolerated and appropriate provision made. In each of the two categories there are a number of specific loading cases as explained in Chapter 2. 4. 3 Frequency of loads Whether the loads are due to manoeuvres or to environmental effects, for the purposes of structural design they have to be dealt with in two ways.
The actual numerical value of the life factor is determined by the statistical accuracy of the available design information. especially in relation to actual tests on both components of the structure and the whole airframe. The analysis is often based on unfactored loads. This is not necessarily entirely satisfactory and it might be better to consider factoring each individual load, or more reasonably the stresses resulting from it, before evaluating the safe life. This is a complex process but should enable a more reliable result to be obtained.
Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout (Aerospace Series (PEP)) by Denis Howe