By Tiffany K. Wayne
Even more than a "Who's Who," this exhaustive two-volume encyclopedia examines the numerous achievements of twentieth century American ladies around the sciences in gentle of the old and cultural elements that affected their schooling, employment, and examine possibilities. With insurance that features a variety of scientists operating this present day, the encyclopedia indicates simply how a lot the sciences have developed as a certified choice for ladies, from the sunrise of the twentieth century to the present.
American girls of technological know-how in view that 1900 makes a speciality of 500 of the twentieth century's so much impressive American girls scientists—many ignored, undervalued, or just no longer popular. additionally, it bargains person good points on 50 assorted clinical disciplines (Women in Astronomy, etc.), in addition to essays on balancing profession and family members, ladies and technology schooling, and different sociocultural subject matters. Readers will come upon a few awesome clinical minds at paintings, getting a feeling of the stumbling blocks they confronted because the medical neighborhood confronted the questions of feminism and gender confronting the state as a whole.
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Extra resources for American Women of Science Since 1900
After the war, the numbers of women earning doctorates continued to climb, but the job market for women scientists in the 1950s and 1960s was still difﬁcult, due to social pressures (such as the postwar emphasis on women’s domestic roles) and a decreased labor need (due to the availability of more male scientists), especially in the higher-level research positions. In this social and economic climate, women who held college degrees had a difﬁcult time ﬁnding jobs to ﬁt their education, and women who did secure such jobs faced discrimination and challenges speciﬁc to the era; for example, in an environment with little social support or even acknowledgement of women’s workplace contributions, there was little social or political attention to issues such as unequal pay or access to childcare.
From contraception, abortion, and sterilization, to infertility, pregnancy, surrogacy, and childbirth practices, to menopause and hormone treatments, feminism has brought women’s health issues to the forefront and pointed out that science and medicine are not value-neutral in the development of new technologies and practices. For example, why has modern science not yet developed an oral contraceptive for men? Or, why are they so many Caesarean sections in the United States compared to other developed nations, and why do many health-insurance plans refuse to cover alternatives such as home births?
Thinking from Women’s Lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Harding, Sandra and Jean O’Barr, eds. 1987. Sex and Scientiﬁc Inquiry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Keller, Evelyn Fox and Helen Longino, eds. 1996. Feminism and Science. New York: Oxford University Press. Lacey, Hugh. 2005. Is Science Value Free? 2nd ed. New York: Routledge. Lederman, Muriel and Ingrid Bartsch, eds. 2001. The Gender and Science Reader. New York: Routledge. Martin, Emily. 2001. The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction.
American Women of Science Since 1900 by Tiffany K. Wayne