By Felix R. FitzRoy, Elissaios Papyrakis
Curiosity in weather swap has generated a mountain of literature leaving many floundering within the sheer flood of knowledge, observation, claims and tasks. This hugely available publication assumes no previous wisdom and cuts in the course of the confusion to provide an explanation for the main monetary and coverage concerns with regards to weather switch in uncomplicated language and with just a couple of facts. insurance slices around the breadth and intensity of weather switch, supplying brief summaries of the main correct study and conclusions from a variety of disciplines. The authors spotlight the place economists and coverage makers usually misunderstand the technology of weather switch, underestimate the dangers of runaway warming and exaggerate the prices of radical measures to stabilize the weather. A key concentration is the effect of weather swap on global agriculture, the world's most crucial job. The authors offer a serious exam of the way present regulations that advertise negative water utilization and soil erosion are risking a catastrophic cave in of agriculture within the poorest and such a lot populous international locations in a warming global. they appear on the suggestions equivalent to how no-till, conservation farming, 3rd iteration biofuels from waste land, substitute strength, and bio-char construction to elevate sustainable yields, lessen emissions and sequester carbon in soil. the second one, the most important thrust is a serious exam of the expansion economic system paradigm of wealthy international locations that's riding weather swap. The authors examine financial measures to regulate weather swap together with switching taxes from exertions to carbon and subsidies from fossil and nuclear power to renewable choices in addition to call for administration and effort saving. total the e-book offers a complete, serious advent to the problems and highlights the most regulations which are had to begin the transformation to sustainability and keep away from the worst dangers of weather disaster.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Climate Change Economics and Policy
11 The prices of animal products from industrial agriculture do not in any way reflect the huge environmental impact of their production. These include overgrazing and erosion of arid grasslands (three-quarters of which are already degraded to some degree), tropical deforestation to obtain more arable land for growing animal feed crops, and massive water pollution surrounding industrial livestock rearing. Just as lack of realistic water pricing fosters enormous waste, depleting aquifers and reducing groundwater levels in both developing and developed countries, so the failure to tax and price animal products in accordance with their full social costs helps to generate unsustainable consumption (in rich economies) and demand growth from the emerging middle classes (in the LDCs).
Northern China supplies most of the country’s grain, but is already running out of water. The Yellow River dries up almost completely in summers that are noticeably hotter and drier than 20 years ago. Most surface water is severely polluted, and groundwater tables have been falling by two to three metres annually under the combined demands of industry, households and the irrigation that is necessary to maintain crop yields. Much of the water used by agriculture comes from aquifers that are being exhausted far faster than natural replenishment rates.
The result of these trends, and an even more rapid rise in fossil fuel prices, was that grain prices doubled or more between 2006 and 2008. This dramatic increase imposed severe hardship on the poorest populations everywhere, but was followed by an equally rapid decline of commodity prices with the global recession that started in late 2008, though many food products have not fallen back to previous lows. As economies recover, the trend of rising fossil fuel prices will doubtless resume and continue to raise the costs of high-input industrial agriculture.
An Introduction to Climate Change Economics and Policy by Felix R. FitzRoy, Elissaios Papyrakis